Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Typhidot (IgM) as a reliable and rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever
Sushma Krishna, Seemanthini Desai, VK Anjana, RG Paranthaaman
January-June 2011, 4(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.80535  
Introduction: Typhoid fever still continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in developing countries. A simple, reliable, affordable, and rapid diagnostic test has been a long-felt need of the clinicians. We, therefore, prospectively evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of Typhidot (IgM), a serological test to identify IgM antibodies against Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Apollo Hospital, Bangalore between January 2009 and March 2009 on a total of 186 samples from clinically suspected febrile patients. Blood culture as well as Typhidot test was performed for each of the cases. Results: Out of 61 clinically diagnosed typhoid fever, 50 were blood culture positive for S. typhi all 50 were Typhidot (IgM) positive and 11 were missed out on both. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test using blood culture as gold standard were 100%, 95.5%, 89.2%, and 100%, respectively for typhoid fever. Conclusion: Typhidot (IgM) test is rapid, easy to perform, and reliable for diagnosing typhoid fever, and useful for small, less equipped laboratories as well as for the laboratories with better facilities in typhoid endemic countries.
  80,839 38 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide
Mohammad Asif
May-June 2012, 5(3):150-156
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.98602  
Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), glycol, ethanol and some other agents. The calcium carbide is one of the most commonly used ripening agent for fruits, while other calcium salts like calcium ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and calcium sulfate are used to delay fruit ripening agents for local fruit industries. The use of calcium carbide is being discouraged worldwide, due to associated health hazards. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous, and once dissolved in water, it produces acetylene gas. Arsenic, phosphorous and acetylene gas may affect the different body organs and causes various health problems like headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema, seizures and prolonged hypoxia.
  39,110 60 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Defluoridation of water by a one step modification of the Nalgonda technique
N Suneetha, K Padma Rupa, V Sabitha, K Kalyan Kumar, Shruti Mohanty, AS Kanagasabapathy, Pragna Rao
July-December 2008, 1(2):56-58
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.50685  
Defluoridation of water by the Nalgonda technique is a commonly used household process in areas of endemic fluorosis in villages around Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh, India). The aim of this paper was to modify the existing well-known procedure minimally and without much change in the cost to bring about a greater removal of fluoride. By doubling the concentrations of alum and lime, water fluoride levels fell significantly (p<0.001) in tap water and drinking water while pH levels and other inorganic factors remained unaffected.
  24,204 111 -
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue
Sabitha Kandi, Pragna Rao
January-February 2012, 5(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92870  
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions). TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave's disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto's thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.
  20,168 19 1
CASE REPORTS
A rare case of genital myiasis in a woman with genital prolapse and malignancy and review of the literature
Jahar Baidya
January-June 2009, 2(1):29-30
Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larvae of several species. The infestations reduce host physiological functions; destroy host tissues, and causes significant economical losses. It is very rare disease in USA and Europe, seen rarely in tropical and subtropical countries in persons with poor personal hygiene. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. The location of this infestation at genital region is, however, an extremely rare occurrence. The authors present here one case of genital myiasis affecting a village woman with genital prolapse and advanced vaginal malignancy.
  19,782 35 2
Recurring hand foot mouth disease in a child
Edwin Dias, Meena Dias
January-February 2012, 5(1):40-41
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92879  
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus A-16, a type of enterovirus. Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. There are reports of HFMD epidemics from India. Recurrence of HFMD is very rare. We report here, a sporadic case of recurrent HFMD.
  19,726 16 2
Oral myiasis
Atul P Sattur, Meera Kulkarni, Arpita Rai, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
March-April 2012, 5(2):130-132
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.95970  
Oral myiasis is a rare condition characterized by infestation of tissues and organs of animals and humans with the larvae of Dipteran flies. Oral myiasis has been previously ascribed to poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supparative lesion, neoplasia and in patients with neuro-psychiatric defecits. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of oral myiasis involving the anterior palate in a schizophrenic patient and to discuss the importance of its diagnosis and management in clinical oral practice. Medical personnel taking care of old or debilitated patients, especially those with neurologic deficit need to bear in mind the possibility of infestation with Dipteran flies' larvae to be able to make a prompt diagnosis and implement relevant intervention to prevent extensive tissue destruction.
  19,695 10 -
Breast tuberculosis or granulomatous mastitis: A diagnostic dilemma
R De Sousa, R Patil
July-December 2011, 4(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.85767  
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease with nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative, and diagnosis is frequently one of exclusion. We report a case of tuberculous breast abscess in a 46-year-old female case of Carcinoma Maxilla on palliative radiochemotherapy. Equivocal histology, negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and culture for acid-fast bacilli resulted in the abscess initially being diagnosed as granulomatous mastitis and treated accordingly. Subsequent development of a discharging sinus and history of immunosuppression raised suspicion of culture-negative tuberculosis. Treatment with standard antituberculous drugs was associated with complete resolution of the breast abscess. This case highlights the difficulty in differentiating culture negative tuberculosis from granulomatous mastitis. Also, the unusual age of presentation following radio and chemotherapy is noteworthy.
  14,715 20 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India
Purushottam A Giri, Deepak B Phalke
November-December 2012, 5(6):569-573
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.109274  
Background: The major part of demand for blood in India is met through voluntary blood donations. Students consists a large and healthy group who are able to provide a large number of blood donation. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students from medical and paramedical branches. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among undergraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines in a Pravara institute of Medical Sciences University campus of central India during the period of May- August 2011. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good; however, majority (52.5%) of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among medical students (53.1%) and lowest among physiotherapy students (20.7%). Non-consideration, forgetfulness, and lack of time were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campus to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
  13,599 77 2
Infection control practices among doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital
Manisha Jain, Vinita Dogra, Bibhabati Mishra, Archana Thakur, Poonam Sood Loomba
January-February 2012, 5(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92877  
Background: Basic infection control measures in any healthcare setup can reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections. A study to assess the knowledge and practice of 400 healthcare personnel regarding hospital infection control practices was performed. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group and collected the same day. Knowledge and practices of 329 nurses and 71 doctors regarding hand hygiene, SPs, hospital environmental cleaning and needle stick injury were collected and analyzed. Results: The study group had suboptimal knowledge regarding the SPs (55.3%) and risks associated with NSI (31.8%). The implementation of SPs was biased towards the HIV positive status of the patient. Only 57% of the doctors and nurses followed the maximal barrier precautions before a CVC insertion. Discussion: The lack of knowledge and practices regarding basic infection control protocols should be improved by way of educational intervention, in the form of formal training of the doctors and nurses and reinforcement of the same.
  13,542 41 2
Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city
BR Chandra Shekar, C.V.K Reddy, BC Manjunath, S Suma
July-December 2011, 4(2):99-106
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.85761  
Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting dentist on routine basis, oral hygiene practices, and deleterious oral habits. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of per capita income was used to classify individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. Data were entered onto a personal computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: Awareness on dental diseases was 100% in upper SES and nil (0%) in the lower SES. Visit to dentist in the last 1 year was 100% in the upper SES and 32.3% in the lower SES. The prevalence of smoking, pan-chewing, and alcohol consumption was high in lower SES than in upper SES. Oral hygiene practices were better among the subjects in upper class than the lower ones. Conclusion: A direct relation was noted between the favorable dental health awareness, attitude, oral hygiene behavior, and SES.
  13,150 23 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Is there science behind the near-death experience: Does human consciousness survives after death?
Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya
March-April 2013, 6(2):151-165
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.116491  
Near death experiences (NDEs) have been reported throughout world in essentially all cultures, including amongst the believers of the Hindu religion The contents of NDEs are independent of the gender, age, profession, religion, belief of soul, belief in angels of death or ghosts and belief in death kingdom and heaven, of people who experienced it. The frequency of occurrence is estimated to be between 5% to 48% in adults, and around 85% in children who experienced near-death situations. This frequency may be higher still, perhaps even 100 percent, were it not for the dreamlike and dissociative character of these experiences, and the amnesia-prone participation of the temporal lobe cortex of brain, causing a clear tendency to forget the NDE. A number of experiences can be very similar to NDEs, such as review of one's life in this planet, or an out-of-body experience (OBE,) in which the physical body and its surroundings are observed from various external vantage points, often from above, such that the body is passing through a deep dark tunnel, or seeing flash of light equal to thousands of sun for pure souls. The experience of seeing God and conversing with him, seeing alien lands, seeing dead relatives or someone's future, can all be regarded as similar in nature. Many individuals have reported horror experiences as well. Numerous cases-are existing in which the reality of the the OBE-observation can be independently 'verified, by external conditions, situations, people, objects, etc. Even people who are non-religious, subsequent to NDE experiences have displayed a markedly decreased fear of death, and a corresponding increase in the belief in "life after death" and re-incarnation. Certain elements of NDE- experiences can be induced by drugs, such as hallucinogenic substances and anesthetic drugs like ketamine, and electrical stimulation of the right temporal lobe or the limbic system has also produced such effects. The possibility that the hallucinogenic transmitters (and endorphins) of the brain themselves play a role in the NDE has been postulated. Nevertheless, there are NDE-elements, such as the frequently reported quick life-reviews, and the acquisition of external, verifiable information about the physical surroundings, that cannot be explained. Wish-fulfillment, death-denial or fighting against death, and other defense mechanisms of the brain, are also not adequate explanations. The large body of NDE data now points to genuine evidence for a non-physical reality. The paranormal capacities of the human being also raises the question: Does the human soul exist?
  12,725 21 -
CASE REPORTS
Negative staining of mycobacteria - A clue to the diagnosis in cytological aspirates: Two case reports
C.S.B.R Prasad, Aparna Narasimha, ML Harendra Kumar
July-December 2011, 4(2):110-112
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.85763  
Large amounts of lipids present in the cell wall of mycobacteria render them impermeable to dyes used in routine stains. Special staining techniques like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Auromine Rhodamine are needed to demonstrate them. However, they may appear as negatively stained ghosts in Leishman, Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H and E) and Gram stained smears. Awareness of this feature prompts one to look for mycobacteria by special techniques, even in the absence of cytological features of tuberculous infection like epithelioid granulomas and caseous necrosis. In this paper, we aim to present two cases showing negatively stained images in the lymphnode aspirates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients. A study has been done of two cases of HIV positive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was carried out for them from the enlarged lymph nodes which revealed purulent material. Smears of FNAC material were prepared for histopathological examination. Fixed smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and air dried smears were stained with Giemsa and ZN-stain and studied. Smear study showed scant cellularity, cells composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Background was necrotic. Giemsa stained smears showed, in addition to cells mentioned, negatively stained ghostly rod shaped structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and also in the background. ZN-stain showed numerous acid fast bacilli. Both the aspirates were signed out as tuberculous lymphadenitis. In both the cases, cultures grew Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare. Classical cytological features of tuberculosis may not be present in immunocompromised patients and on the contrary there may be suppuration rich in neutrophils or sheets of histiocytes in tuberculosis. One may miss these cases if mycobacteria are not looked for specifically by special stains. Negatively stained ghost images of Tuberculous bacilli on different types of strains are a very helpful finding in such cases.
  12,529 12 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV/AIDS: Behavior change among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria
Oyewole C Durojaiye
January-June 2011, 4(1):18-24
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.80516  
Background : Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS remains on the rise with young people at increased risk of infection. Sexual behavior change remains the most effective way of preventing further transmission. Aim: To gain the knowledge needed to develop appropriate interventions that will enable young people to adopt safe sexual practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured questionnaires among 315 randomly selected students enrolled at a tertiary institution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 23 years. Although the mean score of the participants' responses to ten HIV/AIDS knowledge questions was 8.3 of 10 points, 73.5% of them did not perceive themselves at risk of being infected. Majority (53.8%) had not changed their dating behaviors as a result of concerns for HIV/AIDS and 70.3% had multiple lifetime sexual partners. Those who perceived themselves at risk of infection are significantly (P = 0.019) more likely to always use condoms. Using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), it was found that the students are in the first stage of behavior change process: recognition of the problem. The low risk perception has prevented movement to the second stage of making commitment to change behavior. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS is high among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria. However, risk perception is low with high-risk sexual behaviors. The failure to perceive HIV/AIDS as a personal risk has prevented commitment to behavior change. Interventions aimed at influencing risk perception are paramount to curb the spread of this dreaded disease.
  11,477 21 6
Primary health care and public-private partnership: An indian perspective
Ranabir Pal, Shrayan Pal
July-December 2009, 2(2):46-52
Background: In the new millennium, the progress and success of primary health care (PHC) in India has been delegated to and nurtured in the hands of growing number of 'for-profit' and 'not-for-profit' public-private partnerships along with secondary and tertiary care. This article tries to analyze the adequacy and quality of the ever increasing public-private partnership (PPP) in PHC in India. Objective: To assess time trends and overall patterns of public-private partnership in PHC in India. Materials and Methods: We conducted a literature search for data sources through an extensive search in indexed literature and website-based population survey reports; 13 states with public-private partnerships working on PHC were identified. A broad criterion to define both 'for-profit' and 'not-for-profit' PPPs was taken. Outcome variables were success of PPPs in PHC implementation. Results: The study critically reviewed PPPs in the light of their services in the PHC segment and significant policy perspectives by an in depth analysis with operational issues in the management and functioning of the schemes. In the health sector PPPs in India, as social entities, pool the best features of the two merging authorities of Government and private sector. They have already shown their potential. Conclusions: In India, PHC, PPP have shown accountability to the people in India. The time has come to explore this to the fullest extent.
  8,993 286 2
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Menstruation during dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case study
Viroj Wiwanitkit
March-April 2013, 6(2):265-265
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.116518  
  9,072 6 -
NEWS AND FILLER
Attitudes and problems related to voluntary blood donation in India: A short communication
Sourabh Aggarwal, Vishal Sharma
January-February 2012, 5(1):50-52
  9,046 14 -
CASE REPORTS
Unusual presentation of giant condylomata acuminata of the vulva: A case report and review of literature
Ibrahim A Yakasai, Idris S Abubakar, Saidu A Ibrahim, Rabi'u Ayyuba
September-October 2012, 5(5):508-510
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.105146  
The lesion of Condylomata Acuminata popularly known as venereal warts are lesions which are generally diagnosed based on their warty appearance. The mode of treatment range from application of podophyllin to surgical excision by cauterization. A case of unusual presentation of giant Condylomata in a 26 year old, single, nulliparous, retroviral disease positive woman is presented and the literature reviewed. She presented with 18 months history of rapidly progressive vulval swelling and associated itching, contact bleeding, malodorous vaginal discharge and difficulty in walking. She had previously been treated with podophyllin without success. The growth measured 40×30 cm and was successfully excised with no evidence of malignancy.
  8,578 10 -
PRACTITIONERS SECTION
Ethical issues in malaria vaccine clinical trials: A principle-based approach
Joseph O Fadare, Olusegun G Ademowo
January-June 2010, 3(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.76185  
Malaria remains a major problem with the significant public health dimension affecting hundreds of millions of people annually, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of the measures currently used to control the disease is now drastically reduced because of the development of parasite resistance to the anti-malarial drugs and vector adaptation to the insecticides. On account of this development, efforts are ongoing to develop a malaria vaccine to help in the prevention of the disease as well as in reducing the severity in patients. Drug research and development have always raised a lot of ethical issues, especially in the context of developing countries like those of sub-Saharan Africa. This article discusses some of these ethical dilemmas using a template based on the four principles of biomedical ethics.
  7,960 19 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hepatitis-B infection: Awareness among medical, dental interns in India
Pazhaniaandi Tirounilacandin, Subhashraj Krishnaraj, Kameshvell Chakravarthy
July-December 2009, 2(2):33-36
Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the level of awareness on Hepatitis-B infection among medical and dental interns in Pondicherry, India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire containing a set of 20 different questions on Hepatitis B infection was distributed among 64 Medical and 49 Dental Interns of Arupadai Veedu Medical College and Mahatma Gandhi Dental College, Pondicherry, India, respectively. Results: The majority of interns (94.7%) were aware that Hepatitis B virus is the major cause of Hepatitis. About 33.6 and 59.3% of interns had very good and moderate knowledge respectively. The study shows that dental interns (34.7%) had better awareness than medical interns (32.8%). About 52.2% believed that Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted by semen and vaginal secretions. Only 39.9% of the interns believed that doctors, dentists infected with HBV should not have direct contact with patients. Conclusion: One- third of the interns had very good knowledge about Hepatitis B. The majority had good knowledge regarding the mode of transmission and attitude towards HBV patients. However, there is a misconception about prophylaxis, vaccination and treatment of HBV. Hence there is an imperative need for health education to improve the knowledge and attitude of the interns towards Hepatitis B.
  7,473 240 1
CASE REPORTS
Delayed primary presentation of a male child with high anorectal malformation: A case report and review of relevant literature
Parag J Karkera, Paras R Kothari, Rahul Kumar Gupta, Abhaya R Gupta, Ritesh R Ranjan, Krushnakumar Kesan
November-December 2012, 5(6):600-602
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.109301  
Anorectal malformation (ARM), one of the most common congenital anomalies, may present with a wide spectrum of defects. Although, female ARM and male children with low ARM may present late, almost all male patients with high ARM present within first few days of life. We present a rare case of a male child with a high ARM with a wide recto-prostatic urethral fistula who presented at one year of age. He had an associated left radial club hand deformity. He underwent 3 staged repair viz. right transverse colostomy, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty and stoma closure. Our patient was wrongly informed to undergo surgical intervention at one year of age by a village doctor. The parents were also ignorant about the pathology. This case highlights the requirement for improvement in not only literacy, but also basic health care, awareness of the general population and the medical fraternity about common congenital anomalies, and an efficient referral system to a tertiary care center, in India.
  7,552 13 -
Tuberculosis at unusual sites: A case series from a tertiary care center in North Karnataka, India
Dinesh R Kulkarni, Ritesh V Sulegaon, Shashidhar F Chulki
May-June 2015, 8(3):67-70
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.157634  
Tuberculosis (TB) has long been a common and major public health problem in India. Pulmonary infection is the commonest form of the disease, though the bacteria can cause systemic infection in virtually any organ. The increased global incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to a resurgence of TB, with reports of unusual sites being affected by the disease. Due to a very high incidence and prevalence of pulmonary TB in India, different forms of extrapulmonary TB are also relatively high. It can present in many diverse ways at unusual sites, which can be confused with many treatable and nontreatable conditions. Here, we present a case series of primary and secondary forms of TB at unusual sites.
  7,016 8 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Epstein-Barr infection: Current treatment options
Abubakar Yaro
January-February 2013, 6(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.115167  
Epstein-Barr virus is one of the causes of known human cancers such as PLTD, BL and XLP. It is persistent in about 90% of the global population. Prevalent antiviral agents are not effective. A systematic review was undertaken to discuss current treatment options available for EBV infection. A search was made of PubMed to identify relevant papers published from 2000 to 2010 using various search indexes. The review is based on 11 articles included in the study. The result showed that there is no studies which analyzed antiviral agents in EBV infection. Combinational therapy using antiviral agents, immunotherapy and anticancer agents should be considered while antibiotic regimen should be considered to take care of any sepsis. Resistance to antiviral agents especially cross-resistance is burden in EBV infection Studies should be undertaken to evaluate resistance pattern in EBV infection. To assess the efficacy of EBV therapeutics. Viral load using molecular techniques should be used as biomarker of efficacy.
  6,964 16 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Standard white blood cell count for malaria density estimation: A need for review?
Innocent C Omalu, S Oguche, VP Gyang, TM Akindigh, DZ Egah, B Gokop
January-June 2008, 1(1):29-30
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.43075  
To compare the actual white blood cell (WBC) counts, used to calculate malaria parasite densities against the standard WBC counts of 8000/l. The WBC counts of 111 Plasmodium falciparum -infected children in north central Nigeria, Aged 1-4 (<5) and 5-14 (>5) years were estimated in a cross-sectional study. These gave average values of 7487/l and 5985/l against the assumed standard count of 8000/l. A comparison of blood samples grouped into those with WBC counts of 8000/l (3.95% and 8.57%), those below (57.89% and 82.86%) and above (38.16% and 8.57%) showed a significantly higher number in the group below the standard value for the two age groups (X2, df = 3, P > 0.05). This paper draws attention to the disparity between the assumed standard WBC counts and the real values encountered among Nigerian children and proposes a review for achieving more accurate malaria parasite density estimation among other reasons. To best of our knowledge, the present study is the first such report from north central Nigeria.
  6,844 126 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Targeted sexual exploitation of children and women in India: Policy perspectives on Devadasi system
TN Sathyanarayana, Giridhara R Babu
May-June 2012, 5(3):157-162
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.98603  
This paper introduces an alternative comprehensive approach to reduce sexual exploitation and child prostitution. The paper focuses on female devadasi temple prostitutes (Child sex workers but popularly understood as temple prostitutes in the name of dedication to deity) children in South India and the provision of support to integrate devadasi girls into the community and improve their psychosocial situation. The paper is designed broadly, taking cultural practices into consideration and also with a community participatory approach to achieve the goal. The broad objective of the paper is to promote alternative policy approaches, such as: 1. Community participation to integrate current devadasi girls into regular community life, 2. Community participation to avoid future initiation of young girls into the devadasi system, 3. Meeting the psychosocial needs through health, counseling and economical needs of devadasi girls in the community, 4. Assistance to devadasi girls as an alternative to devadasi service in the community. The policy advocacy includes participation by key community members and women's local Self-Help Groups (SHG's) networking to support existing devadasi girls to overcome stigma, social discrimination through cleansing rituals, and organizing vocational training skills to enhance their economic status. Other policy issues are integration of primary healthcare services to these girls and extending counseling services on sexual health and behavioral practices and also to introduce a micro credit system to existing devadasi girls. The paper draws its conceptual framework from psychosocial working group to provide comprehensive strategies to address community complexities. A community participatory approach has been proposed to adopt, in order to build a sustainable strategy to provide the psychosocial needs of the girls initiated into devadasi services, especially in South Indian states where it is prevalent.
  6,749 22 -
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